The ION2 Crystalactor is a fluidized-bed type crystalizer, used in advanced treatment of water and wastewater. Contrary to conventional water treatment processes, the cost-effective crystallization method of the ION2 Crystalactor creates a valuable byproduct instead of waste. The technology is applied in both domestic and industrial applications for water softening and for the removal or recovery of phosphates, fluoride and heavy metals.


The heart of the technology is a pellet reactor, partially filled with a suitable seed material. This can be sand, garnet, crushed pellets or any other type of material. The (waste-)water feed is pumped into the reactor in an upward direction, maintaining the pellet bed in a fluidized state. To crystallize the target component on the pellet bed, appropriate process conditions need to be selected. As a result of the ongoing crystallization, pellets grow in size and gradually move towards the bottom of the fluidized bed. At regular intervals, the largest pellets are discharged from the reactor and replaced by fresh seed material. After atmospheric drying, ready-to use and virtually water-free pellets are obtained.


• Hardness, phosphates, fluoride and heavy metals removal
• Field Erected Units / Pre-assembled Units
• Modular system
• Flow rates: 0.1 - 5.000 m3/h per module
• Circular or rectangular reactor footprint
• Tailor-made reactor materials selection: concrete and steel



No residual waste

A major advantage of the ION2 Crystalactor is the production of highly pure, virtually water free pellets.
The pellets are easy to handle and due to their purity can often be recycled or reused, resulting in zerowaste water treatment!

Four in one
By using the ION2 Crystalactor, the four treatment steps in conventional chemical precipitation processes (coagulation, flocculation, sludge separation and dewatering) are combined into one. Because waterfree pellets are produced, troublesome and costly sludge dewatering is eliminated.

Compact and cost-effective
High surface loadings in the range of 40-120 m3/(m2.h) are applied, resulting in compact ION2 Crystalactor modules with a small foot print. The combination of relatively low capital investment and operational costs makes the ION2 Crystalactor technology a cost effective solution.



Throughout the years, the wide number of ION2 Crystalactor applications has continued to grow. Applications for drinking process and wastewater include:
• Softening
• Phosphate recovery
• (Heavy) metal recovery
• Fluoride recovery
• Pre-treatment for de-ionisation
• Pre-treatment for inland desalination
• Water recovery from membrane concentrates